LPC81x ARM Cortex-M0 Basics

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ARM Cortex-M0+ Architecture Basics

Based upon Harvard Architecture, the LPC812 uses an ARM Cortex-M0+ processor. This means it has separate instruction (flash) and data (SRAM) memory. The basic architecture includes the core components and peripherals.

The core consists of:

  • Processor
  • Memories
  • GPIO
  • Pin interrupts
  • SCTimer/PWM

Peripherals:

  • USARTs
  • SPIs
  • I2C
  • ADC
  • IOCON
  • Multi-rate Timer
  • Watchdog Timer

All output is routed through the Switch Matrix to the individual pins. The switch matrix allows the flexibility of swapping the digital peripheral functions amongst the pins. Obviously, the basic functions like GPIO, power, ground and some others cannot be swapped.

LPC81x Block Diagram

block diagram

Memory Mapping

Fortunately for us, we don’t need to focus too much on the internal design. The main factor to remember is the peripherals are memory mapped. This means our interaction with them (configuration, control, input, and output) is accomplished through an address. Accessing a peripheral is just like writing or reading a value in memory.

It is good practice to access peripherals using a read-modify-write strategy. This strategy is seen throughout ARM and LPC examples.

Read-Modify-Write Example:

GPIO_DIR |= (1<<9);  //proper method preserves unaffected bits of register
//assembler translation:
         0xd6: 0x4813         LDR.N     R0, [PC, #0x4c]         ; [0x124] DIR0
         0xd8: 0x6800         LDR       R0, [R0]
         0xda: 0x2180         MOVS      R1, #128                ; 0x80
         0xdc: 0x0089         LSLS      R1, R1, #2
         0xde: 0x4301         ORRS      R1, R1, R0
         0xe0: 0x4810         LDR.N     R0, [PC, #0x40]         ; [0x124] DIR0
         0xe2: 0x6001         STR       R1, [R0]
…
        0x124: 0xa0002000     DC32      DIR0
//
//
//
GPIO_DIR = (1<<9);  //improper method clobbers all bit of the register
//assembler translation:
         0xc2: 0x2080         MOVS      R0, #128                ; 0x80
         0xc4: 0x0080         LSLS      R0, R0, #2
         0xc6: 0x4911         LDR.N     R1, [PC, #0x44]         ; [0x10c] DIR0
         0xc8: 0x6008         STR       R0, [R1]
…
        0x10c: 0xa0002000     DC32      DIR0

Flash, SRAM and ROM memory

The LPC81xM contain up to 16kB of flash program memory, a total of up to 4kB static RAM data memory, and 8kB of on-chip ROM. The ROM contains the boot loader and In-System Programming (ISP) and In-Application Programming (IAP) support for flash programming, profiles for configuring power consumption and PLL settings, USART driver API routines, and I2C-bus driver routines.

The Very Basic Memory Map

0x00000000 - 0x00004000: Flash program memory
0x10000000 - 0x10001000: SRAM memory
0x1FFF0000 - 0x1FFF2000: Boot ROM (8kB)
0x40000000 - 0x40070000: All APB peripherals
0x50004000 - 0x50008000: SCTimer/PWM
0xA0000000 - 0xA0008000: GPIO

My next post about ARM Cortex-M0.

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About Jim Eli

µC experimenter
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